วันศุกร์ที่ 2 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2552
The doctrine of kamma is one of the most important doctrines in Indian Philosophies belonging to either Astika tradition or Nastika tradition. All schools of Indian philosophy with the single exception of Caravaka, Materialist who refuses the doctrine of kamma as either the law of causation or ethic, profess faith in the doctrine of kamma. Although all those schools, however, subscribe to the belief in the significence of the doctrine of kamma, the concept of kamma is so differently interpreted by the point of view of each school.
According to all systems of the Astika tradition, who accept the law of kamma, they hold that the law of kamma is determined, controlled and forced by Gods, and He is its Lord. What and how a man did in the past and is doing at present will depend on his own kamma and the grace of Gods. Another system of tradition, Nastika, maintains that the law of kamma exists by its own nature depending neither on God nor on any other Supreme Beings. Both systems of Indian thought have a similar view that kamma has a dominant role in determining the nature and circumstances of human life while wandering in Samsara.
Basically Indian philosophy has traditionally been looked upon as the most useful of all the human pursuits. Several schools based on the basic aim as the same explanation toward the nature of ultimate truth which it could be realised as the summum bonum of the spiritual life. The doctrine of kamma is Indian unique contribution to human thought. It is the most rational explanation of the unfair or unjustified and suffering we have lean among human beings in particular and sentient creatures in several. Strictly speaking, it concerns almost universal philosophical adherence and has also powerfully influenced the popular mind of Indian and the conduct of people generally. The doctrine of kamma might be called the essential element, not only of all moral theories, but also of popular belief and a basic factor of Indian spiritual culture.
How come the doctrine of kamma to the point of view on the discussion and on the main dominant doctrine in all those systems of Indian philosophy ? There are three views about the origin and development of the concept of kamma which has been presumed as follows:-
1. It is the anthropological view.
2. It is the process of its development.
3. It is the sociological view.
For the first point of view, it would mean its roots in the notions of the primitive tribes regarding the potency of certain secret action, formulas and incantations in bringing about the intended consequences. In the ancient tribes of human beings, they held that after the physical death, in some form or other, the spirits were hovering in the dark house conners, or roofs, or top of the neighbouring big trees for participating in the welfare of the living progeny. The law of kamma is postulated on the belief that physical death does not mean any damage to the power of the past actions done by the individual to produce their results. There is only performance of certain forbidden acts on the continuity of the personality of the ghost ancestors. It is for this reason, in the Rgvedic period, we find that the various deities were worshiped in such passionate reverential mood that the Gods were mere passive spectators. The sacrificial mechanism had powers of auto dynamic operation.
In Mimansa philosophy, the autonomous potency of the sacrificial cult was exalted to the height. Prayers are to be offered to the Gods. Rituals are to be performed. The Vedas assure a very close and intimate relationship between men and Gods. The life of men has to be led under very eye of God. Every good deed in Rgavedic period means to be done by the way of Rta to which God is satisfied.
Rta means a standard of morality. It is the universal essence of things. It is the Satya or the truth of things. Vartani are the ways of life of good men. The one follows the path of Rta is called conducts in Vrta. Whosoever does not follow to Rta is called Disorderor which is regarded as falsehood or the opposite of truth. Thus the anthropological standpoint regarding the original doctrine of kamma receives additional substantiation from the primitivism and its adhesion to the soul.
For the second point of the original doctrine of kamma regarding to its development, it is analyzed on the correlation between the ethical doctrine of kamma and political process of expansion and territorial settlement was going on in the country at the time. Since the later Rgvedic period, the eastward migration and settlement of some of the Aryan tribes were going on in the various parts of the country and specially in northern India. The process of political action was the need to be rampart and could the territorial integrity of a political entity be safeguarded. Thus it is like to hold that the Upanisadic and Buddhistic emphasis on kamma might has as its partial background the termedous urgency of action in the political world.
The doctrine of kamma, in the third point, is postulated upon the acceptance of a social conflict between the Brahmins and the Ksatriyas. The conflict between these two sections expressed itself also at on intellectual level. They debate with each other on several points of view especially the two dominant conceptions, i.e. the metaphysics of omnistic absolution and ethical law of kamma.
It is sufficient to say that the origin of kamma and the process of its is hypothesized upon the three kinds of the information as I have mentioned above. I would like to quote some of the statement of a Western Ideologists, Recard Garbe, which is presented by Professor V.P.Verma that the doctrine of kamma was a new addition to the philosophical world-view of the Upanisads and was a formulation of the Ksatriyas. He says that the newness of the doctrine is indicated by the all most hesitant manner in which Yajnavalka reveals this doctrine to Arlabhaga.
(See Thesis of Asst.Prof.Dr.Suvin Ruksat)